The scientific tourist #315 — Republic F-105B “Thunderchief”

Built for one role, but known historically for being used in an entirely different way, it’s a Republic F-105BThunderchief,” on display at the South Dakota Air and Space Museum:

Republic F-105B "Thunderchief"

The F-105 was designed as a follow-on to the issue-plagued F-84F Thunderstreak, and proved to be the last aircraft produced by the Republic Aviation Corporation before its merger with Fairchild.  In fact, design work on the F-105 was well under way before the F-84 was even in service with the USAF.

The F-105’s original role was to deliver a single tactical (i.e., battlefield) nuclear weapon, then escape the scene quickly.  As a result, it was a large aircraft with an internal bomb bay and speed (top speed in excess of Mach 2 at altitude) as its calling cards.  But the Korean War wrapped up before it was ready for use in 1958, so multiple variants of the aircraft were built to support reconnaissance, anti-aircraft-suppression, and ground attack roles.

The F-105’s impressive bomb-carrying capability made it the primary aircraft used to deliver bomb loads during the Vietnam War, playing a particularly outsized role in the war’s early years.  Ironically, the ground attack version of the F-105 was so heavily laden with externally mounted bombs that the otherwise-speedy aircraft experienced relatively large loss rates in combat until it was retired.

This model is an F-105B, one of the earlier variants of the aircraft, of which 71 copies were built.  In all, 833 F-105s were built — nearly half of which were lost in Vietnam.

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Carnivalia — 4/30 – 5/06

The past week’s crop of science-related blog carnivals for your reading pleasure:

Carnival of Evolution, Edition #71: A Theory of Evolution or the Evolution of a Theory?

Carnival of Space #352

Friday Ark #473

Morsels For The Mind – 02/05/2014

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The scientific tourist #314 — Pompeiian water cooler

Another interesting sight in the “A Day in Pompeii” traveling exhibit (seen at the Denver Museum of Nature and Science), a Roman era water cooler:

Water cooler

As with many items of the time used for drinking water, this container was made of sheet lead — resistant to corrosion, but posing many long-term health hazards to its users.  A hole at this container’s base likely once held a bronze tap for dispensing the water it contained, while a layer of charcoal inside filtered the water to improve its taste.

While the Romans’ use of lead in plumbing (the origin of the term, actually) has been known for quite a while, it took a recent study to quantify its impacts.  By sampling sediment in rivers and canals around Rome, researchers found that Roman tap water contained 100 times more lead than water drawn from local springs.

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Carnivalia — 4/23 – 4/29

The past week’s crop of (mostly) science-related blog carnivals for your reading pleasure:

April Berry Go Round: Plant Colors

Carnivalesque Vol. 102: A Midsummer Dream

Carnival of Space #351

Friday Ark #472

Ways the ACA Could Be Improved Edition of the Health Wonk Review

Morsels For The Mind – 25/04/2014

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Carnivalia — 4/09 – 4/22

Last week’s Carnivalia wandered off into the weeds, so today you get a double-dose of (mostly) science-related blog carnivals:

Carnival of Space #349

Carnival of Space #350

Friday Ark #470

Friday Ark #471

The Sir Hans Sloane Birthday Collection: Giants’ Shoulders #70

Health Wonk Review – The April Fools’ Edition

Morsels For The Mind – 11/04/2014

Morsels For The Mind – 18/04/2014

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The scientific tourist #313 — terror bird from Brazil

Another interesting specimen on display at Seattle’s Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture:

Terror bird from Brazil

In particular, this is an example of Paraphysornis brasiliensis, a 22 million year old South American “terror bird.” These interesting creatures originated on the continent some 60 million years ago, when it was an island and so isolated from other land masses and their fauna. Lacking other apex predators to contend with, the group diversified to become the dominant predators in South America for much of the Cenozoic. Some species reached three meters (10 feet) in height, while this one stood a more modest two meters (six feet) and weighed about 180 kg (400 pounds).

About 2.5 million years ago, the Isthmus of Panama bridged North and South America, allowing land animals to pass between them. North America became a new home to migrating terror birds (ranging into modern-day Florida and Texas), while sabre-toothed cats expanded into South America. In the end, the cats won and the terror birds went extinct.

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The scientific tourist #312 — Broken Arrows

Two interesting pieces of history on display at the National Museum of Nuclear Science and History — the casings of two bombs involved in the 1966 Palomares incident:

Broken Arrows

Broken Arrow” is U.S. Defense Dept. (DOD) terminology for an accidental event that involves nuclear weapons, warheads, or components but that does not create the risk of nuclear war.  The DOD officially recognizes that 32 Broken Arrow incidents have occurred since the first use of nuclear weapons in 1945.  The 1966 accident over the Spanish town of Palomares was one of the more blood-curdling of these.

From the placard:

On January 17, 1966, a B-52 collided with a KC-135 tanker during a routine refueling operation over Palomares, Spain on the Mediterranean sea coast. The B-52 was carrying four nuclear bombs, which fell over 28,000 feet. One bomb fell into the sea and the other three bombs landed on the ground. The bomb that fell into the sea was recovered at a depth of 2,500 feet after an extensive underwater search. The bomb was dented but intact, and there was no radiation leakage.

With two of the three other bombs, the high explosives detonated on impact and released some radioactive materials. Approximately 1,400 tons of contaminated soil and vegetation were removed to the U.S. for storage at the Savannah River Site. A small parachute deployed on the other bomb, and it remained relatively intact.

The casings from the two bombs that did not detonate during the Palomares incident are on display at the museum, and pictured above.  The one on the left was the bomb subsequently retrieved from the Mediterranean, while the one on the right was the sole bomb to reach land under a working parachute.  Note that these are casings of B28 thermonuclear bombs — once the mainstay of the U.S. Strategic Air Command during the cold war, and capable of a range of explosive yields between 70 kilotons and 1.45 megatons.

But this incident isn’t exactly something we can consign to the history books just yet.  While 2.2 hectares (5.4 acres) of land was decontaminated by removing soil with high levels of radioactivity back in 1966, studies conducted in the past decade have found lingering contamination.  As recently as 2012, Spain formally asked the U.S. to finish the site cleanup.

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Carnivalia — 4/02 – 4/08

The past week’s crop of (mostly) science-related blog carnivals:

Carnivalesque #101

Carnival of Space 348

Friday Ark #469

Morsels For The Mind – 04/04/2014

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The scientific tourist #311 — Ammonite

Another excellent fossil on display at the Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture in Seattle, Washington — this one, an Ammonite:

Ammonite

To be particular, this is a Canadoceras newberryanum, and was collected on Sucia island in Washington state.

Ammonites first appeared about 400 million years ago and were once so plentiful globally that particular species can be used to date rock strata (i.e., they are index fossils) — this one dates to between 70.6 and 84.9 million years ago.  But Ammonites had their good years and bad like all species, and the last of them died out with the dinosaurs about 65 million years ago at the end of the Cretaceous.

While Ammonites look very similar to modern-day Nautilus shells, they’re actually only distant relatives.  Of modern-day fauna, Ammonites are most closely related to squid and octopi.

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Carnivalia — 3/26 – 4/01

The past week’s crop of science-related blog carnivals for your reading pleasure:

March Berry-go-round: Unusual edible plants

Carnival of Evolution: CoE #70 the Game of Evolution

Carnival of Space #347

Friday Ark #468

A March Madness Health Wonk Review

Morsels For The Mind – 28/03/2014

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