Kivas are curious things, historically speaking. Architecturally, they’re derived from pithouses that were used as dwellings in the southwest thousands of years ago. In modern pueblos, kivas serve as religious, ceremonial, and cultural gathering places. So where does that leave things in the time of the ancestral puebloans (nee Anasazi)?
Unfortunately, the ancestral puebloans did a good job of cleaning up after themselves when they left Mesa Verde and other ruins — at least, I’ve never heard of any artifact finds within a ruined kiva. The bulk of the archaeological community seems to feel that for the ancestral puebloans, kivas served a ceremonial purpose. Some holdouts, though, are sure that they were dwellings — with the rest of the rooms in ruins like this serving as storage and work space.